The table on the left gives the speed of waves of different wave lengths in deep water. “Deep” in this context is not an absolute value, but is relative to wave length. The simple relationship starts to to breakdown when the depth of the water is less than 1/4 th the wave length. At that depth the bottom exerts sufficient drag on the wave to slow its motion and thus decrease the wavelength [equations and more about wave speed].
The WaterRower Classic is outfitted with a Series 4 performance monitor that's designed to balance technical sophistication with user-friendliness. The monitor--which includes six information and programming windows, six QuickSelection buttons, and three navigation buttons--displays your workout intensity, stroke rate, heart rate, zone bar, duration, and distance. Plus, the monitor is compatible with an optional heart rate chest strap and receiver, which helps you optimize your workout and achieve your exercise objectives.
Cardiovascular training involves any activity that requires the use of the large muscle groups of the body in a regular and uninterrupted manner. Rowing is one of the few non-weight bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups. In addition, the consistent and all encompassing activity associated with rowing, combined with being outdoors on the water, has an unparalleled impact on reducing stress.2
WaterRower (UK) Ltd was formed in 1991 to market and distribute the WaterRower throughout Europe under license to WaterRower Inc. Initially with offices in Fulham, London, a 1993 agreement provided WaterRower (UK) Ltd with the additional right to manufacture the WaterRower for Europe. Workshops were established in the idyllic stately home of the Earl and Countess of Sandwich, Mapperton Manor 
The model E’s seat stands 6 inches higher. And while the model D’s monitor rests on an adjustable arm, the E’s sits on unbending metal. These few technical differences do nothing to impact ride feel. We recommend the $200-cheaper model D as the best buy, but the Concept 2 E will appeal to anyone who values a higher seat and more solid construction.
As previously discussed, the rowing machine’s big advantage is that it provides more than just a cardio workout. It can definitely help you build muscle and lose weight. Compared to a treadmill, the rowing machine works most of your body. It will really hit your shoulders, core, quads, hamstrings, glutes, arms and back effectively while being low impact thus reducing the stress on your joints. Bigger muscles need more energy and will burn fat to get it, which of course leads to healthy weight loss.
If you are accustomed to the natural catch and feel of on-water rowing, your rowing technique will immediately appreciate the Apollo’s unrivalled emulation of a boat gliding through water. FDF’s patented twin tank design generates a smooth uniform stroke, including no lag of resistance at the catch and continued resistance all the way to the finish.
As far as “racing”, I said an air rowing machine is better because the Concept2 is the only model used for indoor rowing competitions, setting world records, and entering your actual scores online. It is because their monitor can calculate the drag factor of the flywheel in real time and accurately calculate distance and time. Small changes such as dust build up, air temperature, and humidity will not change the times between different machines because the drag factor is calculated every stroke.

WaterRower Dimensions: 83" x 22" x 21" / Weight: 108 Lbs (At Minimum Water Level)Built For Home Use & Practically Maintenance Free..., Rowing Machine Targets All Major Muscle Groups (84% Of Total Muscle Mass) W/ Excellent Adjustable Resistance LevelsMade W/ The Elegant & Desirable Solid Cherrywood That Darkens W/ AgeBoasts A Patented Water Flywheel That Mimics The Natural Dynamics Of Rowing Yet Suitable For Users W/ Joint Concerns (Chlorine Tablet Is Available Free Of Charge)Enjoy 1 Year Manufacturer's Warranty (Upgradeable To 3-Year Parts While 5-Year Frame Is Free Of Charge W/ Registration) read more

In the empty-lung technique, rowers inhale during the drive, and exhale during the recovery so that they have empty lungs at the catch. Because the knees come up to the chest when the lungs are empty, this technique allows the rower to reach a little bit further than if the lungs were full of air. Full lungs at the release also can help the rower to maintain a straighter back, a style encouraged by many coaches.
The rowing machine itself is unlike any other on the market with its patented water filled flywheel. It is hard to exactly copy the action of a scull on the water, but the mechanics of the flywheel spinning in water comes in a close second on dry land. The fact that the water is 800 times denser than air means that there is no need for any extra resistance or dampening that you will find in normal air rowers. The faster you pull, the more resistance is generated giving it infinite variability. However, if you want to be able to practice rowing with a faster stroke, you will have to reduce the amount of water in the tank unlike an air rower where you just have to adjust the baffle.

Another negative point for me is the angle of the seat. Unlike the Concept2, it has a slight backward angle, which makes it easier to maintain good form at the end of the stroke. Given that the Waterrower has greater resistance at the catch, it puts more pressure on the lower back at this point making it uncomfortable for people like myself with lumbar spine problems.
The coxswain (or simply the cox) is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers - by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.
Founded in 1818, Leander Club is the world's oldest public rowing club.[17] The second oldest club which still exists is the Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club which was founded 1836 and marked the beginning of rowing as an organized sport in Germany.[18] During the 19th century, as in England, wager matches in North America between professionals became very popular attracting vast crowds. Narragansett Boat Club was founded in 1838 exclusively for rowing. During an 1837 parade in Providence, R.I, a group of boatmen were pulling a longboat on wheels, which carried the oldest living survivor of the 1772 Gaspee Raid. They boasted to the crowd that they were the fastest rowing crew on the Bay. A group of Providence locals took issue with this and challenged them to race, which the Providence group summarily won. The six-man core of that group went on the following year to found NBC in 1838.[19] Detroit Boat Club was founded in 1839 and is the second oldest continuously-operated rowing club in the U.S. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University.[20] The Harvard–Yale Regatta is the oldest intercollegiate sporting event in the United States,http://rowinghistory.net/Time%20Line/TL%20-1849images.htm[21] having been contested every year since 1852 (excepting interruptions for wars).
Flywheel sits in enclosed water tank to provide smooth, quiet, self-regulated resistanceSeries 4 performance monitor tracks workou...t intensity, stroke rate, heart rate, and moreHandcrafted rowing machine with "water flywheel" that replicates actual rowing feelStores upright; measures 83 x 22 x 21 inches (L x W x H) and weighs 108 poundsNo impact and Non-Load Bearing, perfect for users with Joint concerns read more
Just reading the title will make you think that you are going to row a water vessel out in the rapids. But in this article we’re going to be talking about a different type of water rowing. This is a type of rowing machine that provides the most amazing total body workout among the cardio machine. The reason why it is a good option for you is because it will work on all of your body equally, from the upper part to the lower part, which may lead to amazing gains in all throughout your cardiovascular fitness. You do not need a boat to start rowing. All you need is this equipment and you are ready to go.
Row your way to fitness with this water rowing machine from WaterRower. The A1 S4 Rose is a low-maintenance exercise machine that'...s constructed from high quality ash wood with aluminum mono rail, Rosewood staining, and Danish oil finish-perfect for both residential and commercial use. Engineered with the patented WaterFlywheel resistance method, it gives off life-like water rowing experience while the low noise level and minimal intrusion along with the unique self-regulating resistance with infinite variable allows this exerciser to suit any user without the need for adjustments. With its no impact and non-load bearing, this gym equipment is also made perfect for users with joint problems. Exercise all major muscle groups like the arms, legs, back, shoulders, core, etc. and see how great you're doing with the help of the S4 monitor that comes with the package. It monitors time per 2 or 500 kilometers, watts, calories burned per hour, distance, and the total time of workouts. This exercise machine's awesome features don't stop there! It also boasts minimal maintenance with no lubrication needed. You simply need to add purification tablet every 3-6 months (tablets come with the package). Storage is easy as well. Simply tip the machine vertically and you can easily lean it against a wall or hide it inside a closet. Moreover, enjoy 1 year manufacturer warranty (can be upgraded to 3 years parts and 5 years frame warranty for free with registration) and free shipping when you purchase your unit from Dazadi. Get it today! read more
We picked the brains of rowing coaches, fitness experts, and physical therapists to learn what features make for an exceptional rower. Based on their input, we searched the market for air and water resistance rowing machines, then tested the best for ride feel and design. We found one model of each type — air resistance and water resistance — that felt truly superior to the others.
THL: Stay a safe distance from vertical surfaces if there are significant waves present in the area. A passing boat or ship may generate big waves that escape your attention until there is no time to escape. An example is the North anchorage of the Golden Gate Bridge (but there are special cases, e.g. rough water classes or the OWRC regatta, when there is a fast flood coming through the Golden Gate, and it is useful to be close to the wall since the current is slower there).
John Duke, creator of the WaterRower, was inspired to try his hand at invention while working at a subsidiary for U.S. Steel. He wanted to make an indoor machine that felt as much like real rowing as possible, with a focus on aesthetics. It took him two years to get the design right, moving past failed ideas such as a flipper in the tank instead of a clutch. What began as a series of doodles at his desk turned into a sculptural piece of exercise equipment that upends expectations in two ways: by bringing water indoors, and by looking elegant and artful when stored.
We facebooked customer service(They advertise this as one way to get a hold of them). The next day, they responded that we need to e-mail or call. We e-mailed customer service the other day. They asked for this video, and they haven't responded again since. I don't think it's too much to ask that a $500 piece of exercise equipment that's brand new could actually be usable.
Using the same principles that govern the dynamics of a boat in water, the WaterRower S1 Stainless Steel Rower with S4 Monitor provides an unlimited range of resistance making it suitable for a variety of strength and skill levels. In a boat, the faster you move, the greater the drag and the greater the intensity of exercise required to maintain your speed. The limit to the speed you can maintain is you, your physiology, not the machine. For maximum realism and comfort, the WaterRower S1 Stainless Steel Rower's precision spragg clutch engages the instant the handle is pulled, so there is no jerkiness or jarring at the beginning of the stroke. The WaterRower S1 Stainless Steel Rower with S4 Monitor leaves you with the distinct sense that you are gliding effortlessly across the water. Order your WaterRower S1 Stainless Steel Rower from FitnessZone.com today!

The benefit of a water resistance rower is that it most closely simulates a boat moving through water. Rowing resistance comes from the effect of fluid drag acting on the boat; in other words, resistance increases according to stroke rate. The patented WaterFlywheel emulates this naturally self-paced benefit of rowing. This is a workout with immediate benefits, regardless of your level of experience! Please also note that you can adjust the workout intensity by changing the amount of water in the tank. The more water, the higher the effort level required.
In general, multi-boat competitions are organized in a series of rounds, with the fastest boats in each heat qualifying for the next round. The losing boats from each heat may be given a second chance to qualify through a repechage. The World Rowing Championships offers multi-lane racing in heats, finals and repechages. At Henley Royal Regatta two crews compete side by side in each round, in a straightforward knock-out format, with no repechages.
It is time to get into shape.  After doing some research and talking to a few experts, at least more expert than me, I determined rowing and swimming would be the best for me to loose weight with less strain on my body.  I researched and decided to rent (not buy) a Water Rower.  The one page rental application  is simple to complete and the staff telephone contacts were great, they answered questions, provided updates, made suggestions  etc.   The equipment showed up as promised.  Assembly is very simple one person job  and took just about a half hour, only one small allen wrench is required and it is provided. (save the box, its big but needs to be saved in the event you return the equipment)  The machine is classic and elegant.  It is not silent but the water swoosh sound is quite relaxing and soft.  I rented a previously used matching which is slightly less expensive  and shows a tiny bit of use but its exercise equipment so it is expected.  Customer service is outstanding and friendly.  The equipment seems really well designed and is simple to stand up and get out of the way.  The only issue I had involved the the filling of the tank.  Its cumbersome and could be made easier by a more convenient placement of the fill hole, it seems to be a slight design flaw.  I used a new long funnel (used to add oil to a car).  I checked out a few Youtube posts and videos and other users had the same minor complaint but overall everyone is really happy with this equipment.  NOW I NEED to MAKE MYSELF USE IT.
We spent 42 hours on research, videography, and editing, to review the top picks for this wiki. These days, there’s no need to trek to a gym and pay costly membership fees if you want to get fit and stay healthy. Rowing machines provide a low-impact, full-body workout that targets almost every major muscle group. Once you choose the model that best fits your needs and find a convenient location somewhere in your home, there's nothing left to do but dip your oars. When users buy our independently chosen editorial picks, we may earn commissions to support our work. Skip to the best rowing machine on Amazon.
I would like to begin reviewing the screen. It’s quite simple to use. It doesn’t offer many things and that is what anticipated in a rowing machine that is under $150. As the LCD screen is too small, you need to keep yourself motivated some way or the other; music is a good way by the way. It’s only an easy screen that can show some basic information while you row such as the length of time you rowed in a single session and how much you’ve rowed. Additionally, it can give you a good idea about the approx. number of calories burned and strokes performed.  And that’s it. The LCD screen doesn’t show anything new. No preset applications are contained, and there is no way to save your workout information.
WaterRower is made in the USA using hardwood from only replenishable sources. WaterRower strives to manufacture rowing machines that are of a stylish design and built to last, while maintaining our commitment to eco-friendliness. Our WaterRower Rowing Machines are functional fitness furniture, designed not to be hidden away like other unsightly gym equipment, but to look at home in your living room. Storing the waterrower in an upright position no wider than a dining room chair, our rowing machines can be easily laid out for a quick indoor rowing exercise session. Order your WaterRower from FitnessZone.com!
The sport's governing body is formally known as the "Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Aviron" (English translation: International Federation of Rowing Associations), though, the majority of the time, either the initialism "FISA" or the English co-name, World Rowing, which the organization "uses for 'commercial purposes,'"[27] is used to refer to it. Founded by representatives from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Adriatica (now a part of Italy), and Italy in Turin on 25 June 1892,[28] FISA is the oldest international sports federation in the Olympic movement.[29]
In addition to this, certain crew members have other titles and roles. In an 8+ the stern pair are responsible for setting the stroke rate and rhythm for the rest of the boat to follow. The middle four (sometimes called the "engine room" or "power house") are usually the less technical, but more powerful rowers in the crew, whilst the bow pair are the more technical and generally regarded as the pair to set up the balance of the boat. They also have most influence on the line the boat steers.
The WaterRower Classic is outfitted with a Series 4 performance monitor that's designed to balance technical sophistication with user-friendliness. The monitor--which includes six information and programming windows, six QuickSelection buttons, and three navigation buttons--displays your workout intensity, stroke rate, heart rate, zone bar, duration, and distance. Plus, the monitor is compatible with an optional heart rate chest strap and receiver, which helps you optimize your workout and achieve your exercise objectives.
Although some rowing machines are made of space-age, super-sweat-resistant metals, you still want to wipe off the equipment after a sweaty workout.  These machines are usually constructed with a lot of various materials and salty sweat can be very corrosive.  Keeping your rowing machine clean can go a long way toward extending its life, and its appearance.
The breathtaking Henley Room is situated along the shores of Lake Ontario in the historical Argonaut Rowing Club. With more than 2600 sq. and a 75 ft. patio terrace, both offer a magnificent view of the lake. Our spacious bar area is decorated with a plethora of historic rowing memorabilia which provides your guests a comfortable, relaxing and enjoyable setting.

Ever since the earliest recorded references to rowing, the sporting element has been present. An Egyptian funerary inscription of 1430 BC records that the warrior Amenhotep (Amenophis) II was also renowned for his feats of oarsmanship. In the Aeneid, Virgil mentions rowing forming part of the funeral games arranged by Aeneas in honour of his father.[10] In the 13th century, Venetian festivals called regata included boat races among others.[11]

WaterRower Rowing Machines offer a pleasant rowing exercise while holding true to the dynamics of on-water rowing; burn up to 1000 calories an hour and work up to 84 percent of your muscle mass! Rowing provides an effective, high-intensity, cardio workout, while maintaining a low-impact to the joints. Workout at your own pace as the WaterFlyWheel's self-regulating resistance dynamically adjusts to each of your strokes. Unlike common ergometers, to change resistance on a WaterRower rowing machine you simply row harder!


Water Rower Dimensions: 82.25" x 22.25" x 19.63" / Weight: 88 Lbs (Empty Tank), 125 Lbs (With 171 Liters Of Water) ; Maximum User ...Weight And Height: 1000 Lbs & 38" InseamExercise Rower Features Stainless Steel Makeup With Brushed Stainless Steel Finish For High DurabilityBoasts Patented Water Flywheel Responsible For Its Natural Rowing Dynamic-Like Actually Driving A Boat With Oars! Other Features: Self-Regulating Resistance Levels-Making It Suitable For Any User, Little Maintenance Required (Tablets Available From Manufacturer Free Of Charge) And Inclusive Of S4 Performance Monitor (Displays Intensity, Kcalories/Hour, Stroke Rate, Heart Rate, And More! Enjoy 1 Year Commercial Warranty (Upgradeable To 3-Year Parts While 5-Year Frames Are Free Of Charge With Registration) read more


Water rowers feature a tank that is actually filled with water as a means for resistance. As you increase the pace of rowing, the resistance naturally increases as well. This means that you can set your own pace and resistance in a single motion. The same is true for air rowers. Air rowers use a fan or flywheel to create resistance, and you have control over the intensity of the workout due to the fact that the air resistance depends on your pace. Most water and air rowers come equipped with -- or at least have as an option -- monitors that track various functions such as distance, strokes, strokes per minute and calories burned.
We picked the brains of rowing coaches, fitness experts, and physical therapists to learn what features make for an exceptional rower. Based on their input, we searched the market for air and water resistance rowing machines, then tested the best for ride feel and design. We found one model of each type — air resistance and water resistance — that felt truly superior to the others.

Rowing is primarily a cardio workout, but it’s also more than that. Your heart rate is absolutely going to be climbing, but unlike a jog in the park, you might also be sore the next day. The rower requires you use your legs more than anything, and as we know, your quads, glutes, calves, and hamstrings are the biggest, most powerful muscles in your body. But you’re also pulling with your arms, shoulders, abs and engaging your back. That said, you’re not pulling as hard as you might with, say, a seated cable row machine at the gym. You don’t want to hurt your back, but you can engage them and this will help you get those muscles toned.


The Apollo Pro 2 water rower is a commercial grade, natural wood rowing machine, perfect for group training or high-end home gyms. This rower’s water resistant design, meditative motion and integrity of construction sets it apart from its competitors. Handcrafted from the finest quality American Ash wrapped around a stabilising steel frame, this steadfast indoor rower offers a standout performance even in the harshest of fitness applications.
On a rowing machine, you don’t want to be wearing clothes that are too baggy as the fabric can get caught between the seat and the beam it slides on.  It’s not a disaster if that happens, but it can get annoying if your shorts keep getting caught there while you’re trying to get a serious workout.   It’s better to wear shorter, tighter-fitting shorts (nothing ridiculous), but just enough to ensure it doesn’t the material doesn’t hang down.

Women row in all boat classes, from single scull to coxed eights, across the same age ranges and standards as men, from junior amateur through university-level to elite athlete.[49][50] Typically men and women compete in separate crews although mixed crews and mixed team events also take place.[51] Coaching for women is similar to that for men.[52] The world's first women's rowing team was formed in 1896 at the Furnivall Sculling Club in London.[53]
Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather,[4] but male rowers have competed since the 1900. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, only fourteen boat classes race at the Olympics: [note 2] Each year the World Rowing Championships is staged by FISA with 22 boat classes raced. In Olympic years only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships. The European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title. Since 2008, rowing has also been competed at the Paralympic Games.
Rowing machines are often used by people who are looking to get a full-body workout, and also by rowers to stay in rowing shape during the off-season. According to Men’s Total Health, rowing is a natural motion, and is therefore fairly easy for anyone to pick up and do properly. Also, rowing is a low-impact exercise, meaning that the potential for injuries to your joints is lower than on such machines as treadmills, for example.
The Challenge AR has the capability to allow the rower to control and adjust the resistance from “Feather light” to “Olympic sprint” delivering a silky smooth resistance to the user’s effort and instantaneous response to input with no “flat sport”.  With water resistance being the most accurate manner in which to simulate actual outdoor rowing, the Challenge AR provides a smooth and consistent sensation throughout the range of motion of the exercise experience.  
The International Rowing Federation (French: Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Aviron, abbreviated FISA), responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations that participate in the sport.[3]
The large display console allows you to keep track of the calories burned, distance covered, strokes per minute and duration of the workout. The Newport also includes an improved seat roller design for a smoother glide. The ergonomic padded seat will keep you comfortable and encourage longer workouts while the rust-resistant rail system is made to prevent scuffing as you push yourself during an intense session.

The WaterRower Classic Rower is hand crafted in solid American Black Walnut. Like all woods, Black Walnut may vary in color from a rich brown to purple-black. Each machine has been hand finished with three coats of Danish Oil giving a deep luster an warmth to the wood. The wood has been chosen due to its marvelous engineering properties, primary amongst these is its ability to absorb sound and vibration enhancing the WaterRower's quietness and smoothness of use. Black Walnut, like all woods used in WaterRower construction, is a premium hardwood with incredible longevity and dimensional stability. For reasons of ecology, all our woods are harvested from replenishable forests.
There is some minor maintenance. Because it's made out of wood, which can expand and contract, the bolts need tightening every few months or so. It's easy and takes only a couple of minutes. That, and putting in a fresh water purification tablet every six to twelve months, are about it for regular maintenance. The only problem I've had with the rower (the reason for 4 stars instead of 5) was a squeak that developed after about 6 weeks. It took me some time to determine the source of the squeak, which was a metal bracket connecting the footrest board to the horizontal boards above the drum. I had to partially disassemble the top section and tighten four bolts, but that fixed the problem and it's been quiet ever since.
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